The 20th century Technology from to Recent history is notoriously difficult to write, because of the mass of material and the problem of distinguishing the significant from the insignificant among events that have virtually the power of contemporary experience. In respect to the recent history of technology, however, one fact stands out clearly: The airplane, the rocket and interplanetary probes, electronics, atomic power, antibiotics, insecticides, and a host of new materials have all been invented and developed to create an unparalleled social situation, full of possibilities and dangers, which would have been virtually unimaginable before the present century.
Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. The 20th century What was seen in the 20th century was not only an intensification and spread of earlier tendencies in the social sciences but also the development of many new tendencies that, in the aggregatemade the 19th century seem by comparison one of quiet unity and simplicity in the social sciences.
In the 20th century the processes first generated by the democratic and industrial revolutions proceeded virtually unchecked in Western society, penetrating more and more spheres of once traditional morality and cultureleaving their impress on more and more countries, regions, and localities.
Equally important, perhaps in the long run far more so, was the spread of these revolutionary processes to the non-Western areas of the world. The impact of industrialism, technology, secularismand individualism upon peoples long accustomed to the ancient unities of tribelocal 20th century technologyagriculture, and religion was first to be seen in the context of colonialisman outgrowth of nationalism and capitalism in the West.
So too were certain other consequences, or lineal episodes, of the two revolutions. The 20th century was the century of nationalismmass democracylarge-scale industrialism, and developments 20th century technology communication and information technology beyond the reach of any 19th-century imagination so far as magnitude is concerned.
It was also the century of mass warfareof two world wars with tolls in lives and property greater perhaps than the sum total of all preceding wars in history. It was the century too of totalitarianism: It was a century of affluence in the West, without precedent for the masses of people, evidenced in a constantly rising standard of living and a constantly rising level of expectations.
The last is important. A great deal of the turbulence in the 20th century—political, economic, and social—resulted from desires and aspirations that had been constantly escalating and that had been passing from relatively homogenous groups in the West to ethnic and racial minorities among them and, then, to whole continents elsewhere.
Of all manifestations of revolutionthe revolution of rising expectations is perhaps the most powerful in its consequences. For, once this revolution gets under way, each fresh victory in the struggle for rights, freedom, and security tends to magnify the importance of what has not been won.
Once it was thought that, by solving the fundamental problems of production and large-scale organization, societies could ameliorate other problems, those of a social, moraland psychological nature.
What in fact occurred, on the testimony of a great deal of the most notable thought and writing, was a worsening of such problems. It would appear that as humans satisfy, relatively at least, the lower-order needs of food and shelter, their higher-order needs for purpose and meaning in life become ever more imperious.
Thus, such philosophers of history as Arnold ToynbeePitirim Sorokinand Oswald Spengler dealt with problems of purpose and meaning in history with a degree of learning and intensity of spirit not seen perhaps since St. Augustine wrote his monumental The City of God c. In the 20th century, the idea of progress, though it had certainly not disappeared, was rivalled by ideas of cyclical change and of degeneration of society.
It is hard to miss the currency of ideas in modern times—status, community, purpose, moral integrationon the one hand, and alienation, anomie, disintegration, breakdown on the other—that reveal only too clearly the divided nature of the human spirit, the unease of the human mind.
There is to be seen too, especially during later decades of the century, a questioning of the role of reason in human affairs—a questioning that stands in stark contrast to the ascendancy of rationalism in the two or three centuries preceding.
Doctrines and philosophies stressing the inadequacy of reason, the subjective character of human commitment, and the primacy of faith rivalled—some would say conquered—doctrines and philosophies descended from the Enlightenment.
Existentialismwith its emphasis on the basic loneliness of the individual, on the impossibility of finding truth through intellectual decision, and on the irredeemably personal, subjective character of human life, proved to be a very influential philosophy in the 20th century, though it did not supplant the influence of religious belief in most parts of the world.
Freedom, far from being the essence of hope and joy, can represent the source of human dread of the universe and of anxiety for oneself.
Courtesy of the Royal Danish Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Copenhagen It might be thought that such intimations and presentiments as these have little to do with the social sciences.
This is true in the direct sense perhaps but not true when one examines the matter in terms of contexts and ambiences. Ideas of alienation, anomie, identity crisis, and estrangement from norms are rife among the social sciences—particularly, of course, those most directly concerned with the nature of the social bond, such as sociology, social psychologyand political science.
Between the larger interests of a culture and the social sciences there is never a wide gulf—only different ways of defining and approaching these interests.
Marxist influences The influence of Marxism in the 20th century must not be missed. For hundreds of millions of persons, the ideas of Marx as communicated by Vladimir Ilich Lenin had profound moral, even bordering on religious, significance.
But even in those parts of the world, the West foremost, where communism exerted little direct political impact, Marxism remained a potent source of ideas.
Far more was this the case in the communist countries—the Soviet Union and the Soviet bloc countries, Chinaand even Asian countries in which no communist domination existed.
But, though Marxism had relatively little direct impact on the social sciences as disciplines in the West, it had enormous influence on states of mind that were closely associated with the social sciences.
Especially was this true during the s, the decade of the Great Depression. Socialism remains for many an evocative symbol and creed. Marx remains a formidable name among intellectuals and is still, without any question, a principal intellectual source of radical movements in politics.Technology has always been inseparable from the development of music.
But in the twentieth century a rapid acceleration took place: a new "machine music" came into existence, electronic musical instruments appeared, and composers sometimes seemed more like sound technicians than musicians. Nikola Tesla: Imagination and the Man That Invented the 20th Century - Kindle edition by Sean Patrick.
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20th & 21st Century America. Updated July 11, JUMP TO.. Comprehensive Sites - Timelines - Primary Documents - Maps, vs.
- Impact of the 20th Century, Planes - Trains - Automobiles, The First 20 Years: , World War I, Immigration, The Roaring Twenties, The Turbulent Thirties, World War II, The Fight for Civil Rights, - Present, Various Misc. Topics. Welcome! How many of the 20th century's greatest engineering achievements will you use today?
Computer? Telephone? Explore our list of the top 20 achievements and learn how engineering shaped a century and changed the world. There can be no doubt that the twentieth century is one of the most remarkable unparalleled rate in mankind’s history for its technological advances and scientific discoveries, a rate that continues to this day.
D-Lib Magazine January/February Volume 13 Number 1/2 ISSN Resource Description and Access (RDA) Cataloging Rules for the 20th Century.