A personal essay in hypertext by Scott Bidstrup If you look up "homophobia" in the dictionary, it will probably tell you that it is the fear of homosexuals. While many would take issue with that definition, it is nevertheless true that in many ways, it really is a fear of homosexuality or at least homosexuals, as we will see in this essay.
Fact, Fiction, and Prediction, written by Jasia Reichardt thus forging an unintended link to Ernst Jentsch 's concept of the uncanny introduced in a essay entitled "On the Psychology of the Uncanny.
However, as the robot's appearance continues to become less distinguishable from a human being, the emotional response becomes positive once again and approaches human-to-human empathy levels. The name captures the idea that an almost human-looking robot seems overly "strange" to some human beings, produces a feeling of uncanninessand thus fails to evoke the empathic response required for productive human—robot interaction.
Automatic, stimulus-driven appraisals of uncanny stimuli elicit aversion by activating an evolved cognitive mechanism for the avoidance of selecting mates with low fertilitypoor hormonal healthor ineffective immune systems based on visible features of the face and body that are predictive of those traits.
Uncanny stimuli may activate a cognitive mechanism that originally evolved to motivate the avoidance of potential sources of pathogens by eliciting a disgust response.
Stimuli with human and nonhuman traits undermine our sense of human identity by linking qualitatively different categories, human and nonhuman, by a quantitative metric, degree of human likeness.
The uncanny valley may "be symptomatic of entities that elicit a model of a human other but do not measure up to it".
However, if the entity looks almost human, it elicits our model of a human other and its detailed normative expectations. The nonhuman characteristics are noticeable, giving the human viewer a sense of strangeness.
In other words, a robot stuck inside the uncanny valley is no longer judged by the standards of a robot doing a passable job at pretending to be human, but is instead judged by the standards of a human doing a terrible job at acting like a normal person.
This has been linked to perceptual uncertainty and the theory of predictive coding. The existence of artificial but humanlike entities is viewed by some as a threat to the concept of human identity.
Yalom explains that humans construct psychological defenses in order to avoid existential anxiety stemming from death. One of these defenses is specialness, the irrational belief that aging and death as central premises of life apply to all others but oneself.
In folklore, the creation of human-like, but soulless, beings is often shown to be unwise, as with the golem in Judaism, whose absence of human empathy and spirit can lead to disaster, however good the intentions of its creator.
The negative effect associated with uncanny stimuli is produced by the activation of conflicting cognitive representations. Perceptual tension occurs when an individual perceives conflicting cues to category membership, such as when a humanoid figure moves like a robot, or has other visible robot features.
This cognitive conflict is experienced as psychological discomfort i. Mathur and Reichling found that the time subjects took to gauge a robot face's human- or mechanical-resemblance peaked for faces deepest in the uncanny valley, suggesting that perceptually classifying these faces as "human" or "robot" posed a greater cognitive challenge.
Burleigh and colleagues demonstrated that faces at the midpoint between human and non-human stimuli produced a level of reported eeriness that diverged from an otherwise linear model relating human-likeness to affect. It has been argued that the effect is driven by categorization difficulty,   perceptual mismatch,    frequency-based sensitization,  and inhibitory devaluation.
Negative reactions toward very humanlike robots can be related to the challenge that this kind of robot leads to the categorical human — non-human distinction.
Kaplan  stated that these new machines challenge human uniqueness, pushing for a redefinition of humanness.Dec 20, · To the young male actors in his retinue in Santa Barbara in the s, Gary Goddard was an exalted figure.
A successful former theater prodigy, Goddard returned through his 20s to .
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